Further Resources

Alexeew, J., Bergset, L., Meyer, K., Petersen, J., Schneider, L. and Unger, C. (2010). An analysis of the relationship between the additionality of CDM projects and their contribution to sustainable development. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 10(3). 233–48. DOI: 10.1007/s10784-010-9121-y

Amazon Web Services Official Blog. 2015. “New Amazon Wind Farm (Fowler Ridge).” January 2. https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-amazon-web-services-wind-farm-fowler-ridge/.

Apex Clean Energy. 2014. “The IKEA Group Makes Largest Wind Farm Investment to Date.” Apex Clean Energy. November 18. http://www.apexcleanenergy.com/news/ikea-group-makes-largest-wind-farm-investment-date.

Borenstein, Severin, James Bushnell, Frank A. Wolak, and Matthew Zaragoza-Watkins. 2014. Report of the Market Simulation Group on Competitive Supply/Demand Balance in the California Allowance Market and the Potential for Market Manipulation. WP 251. Berkeley, CA: Energy Institute at Haas. http://ei.haas.berkeley.edu/pdf/working_papers/WP251.pdf.

Broekhoff, Derik, and Kathryn Zyla. Outside the Cap: Opportunities and Limitations of Greenhouse Gas Offsets. Climate and Energy Policy Series. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, December 2008. http://www.wri.org/publication/outside-the-cap.

Cames, M., Harthan, R. O., Fussler, J., Lazarus, M., Lee, C. M., Erickson, P. and Spalding-Fecher, R. (2016). How Additional Is the Clean Development Mechanism? Analysis of the Application of Current Tools and Proposed Alternatives. CLlMA.B.3/SERl2013/0026r. Prepared for DG Clima by Oko-Institut, INFRAS, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Berlin. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/ets/docs/clean_dev_mechanism_en.pdf

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Disch, David. 2010. “A Comparative Analysis of the ‘development Dividend’ of Clean Development Mechanism Projects in Six Host Countries.” Climate and Development 2 (1): 50–64. doi:10.3763/cdev.2010.0034.

Dufrasne, G. (2018). The Clean Development Mechanism: Local Impacts of a Global System. Carbon Market Watch. https://carbonmarketwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/CMW-THE-CLEAN-DEVELOPMENT-MECHANISM-LOCAL-IMPACTS-OF-A-GLOBAL-SYSTEM-FINAL-SPREAD-WEB.pdf

“Ensuring Offset Quality: Integrating High Quality Greenhouse Gas Offsets Into North American Cap-and-Trade Policy.” Offset Quality Initiative, July 2008. http://ghginstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/OQI_Ensuring_Offset_Quality_Jul08.pdf

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Further Reading on Green Power Claims,” Greenhouse Gas Management Institute Blog Post, March 12th, 2014.

Galik, Christopher S., Daniel deB. Richter, Megan L. Mobley, Lydia P. Olander, and Brian C. Murray. 2008. A Critical Comparison and Virtual “field Test” of Forest Management Carbon Offset Protocols.

Gilbertson, Tamara. 2009. “How Sustainable Are Small-Scale Biomass Factories? A Case Study from Thailand.” In Upsetting the Offset: The Political Economy of Carbon Markets, edited by Steffen Böhm and Siddhartha Dabhi, 57–71. London, UK: MayFly Books.

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Gillenwater, M., 2008b. “Redefining RECs (Part 1): Untangling attributes and offsets,” Energy Policy, Volume 36, Issue 6, Pages 2109-2119.

Gillenwater, M., 2008c. “Redefining RECs (Part 2): Untangling certificates and emission markets,” Energy Policy, Volume 36, Issue 6, June 2008, Pages 2120-2129.

Gillenwater, M., 2013. “Probabilistic decision model of wind power investment and influence of green power market.” Energy Policy, 63, pp.1111–1125.

Gillenwater, Michael. 2011. What Is Additionality? (In 3 Parts). Discussion Paper. Silver Spring, MD: Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. http://ghginstitute.org/2012/01/25/how-do-you-explain-additionality/.

Gillenwater, M. (2012). What is wrong with ‘real’ carbon offsets? Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, 2(4). 167–70. DOI: 10.1080/20430779.2013.781879

Gillenwater, M., Lu, X. & Fischlein, M., 2014. “Additionality of wind energy investments in the U.S. voluntary green power market.” Renewable Energy, 63, pp.452–457.

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Haya, B. and Parekh, P. (2011). Hydropower in the CDM: Examining Additionality and Criteria for Sustainability. ERG-11-01. Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. http://erg.berkeley.edu/working_paper/index.shtml

Haya, Barbara, Malini Ranganathan, and Sujit Kirpekar. 2009. “Barriers to Sugar Mill Cogeneration in India: Insights into the Structure of Post-2012 Climate Financing Instruments.” Climate and Development 1 (1): 66–81. doi:10.3763/cdev.2009.0002.

Henders, Sabine and Madelene Ostwald. 2012. “Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD.” Forests 3(1): 33-58.

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International Carbon Reduction & Offset Alliance (2019). ICROA’s position on scaling private sector voluntary action post-2020. , July 2019. https://www.icroa.org/resources/Documents/ICROA_Voluntary_Action_Post_2020_Position_Paper_July_2019.pdf

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Is Your Green Power Really Just Green Washing?” Greenhouse Gas Management Institute Blog Post, March 12th, 2014.

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Kartha, S., Caney, S., Dubash, N. K. and Muttitt, G. (2018). Whose carbon is burnable? Equity considerations in the allocation of a “right to extract”. Climatic Change, 150. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-018-2209-z

Kollmuss, Anja, and Jürg Füssler. 2015. “Overview of Carbon Offset Programs.” World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/21353/COP_eBook.pdf?sequence=1.

Kollmuss A, Lazarus M. (2010). Buying and Cancelling Allowances as an Alternative to Offsets For the Voluntary Market: A Preliminary Review of Issues and Options. OECD Environment Working Paper No. 21.

Kollmuss, A. and Lazarus, M. (2010). Industrial N2O Projects Under the CDM: The Case of Nitric Acid Production. SEI Working Paper WP-US-1007. Stockholm Environment Institute – U.S. Center. http://www.sei-international.org/publications?pid=1636

Kollmuss, A., Schneider, L. and Zhezherin, V. (2015). Has Joint Implementation Reduced GHG Emissions? Lessons Learned for the Design of Carbon Market Mechanisms. http://sei-us.org/publications/id/550

Kolstad, C., Urama, K., Broome, J., Bruvoll, A., Cariño-Olvera, M., et al. (2014). Chapter 3: Social, economic and ethical concepts and methods. In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edenhofer, O., Pichs-Madruga, R., and Sokona, Y. (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York. 173–248. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/

Kreibich, N. and Obergassel, W. (2019). The Voluntary Carbon Market: What May Be Its Future Role and Potential Contributions to Ambition Raising? German Emissions Trading Authority (DEHSt) at the German Environment Agency. https://epub.wupperinst.org/frontdoor/deliver/index/docId/7396/file/7396_Carbon_Market.pdf

Lazarus, M., Erickson, P. and Spalding-Fecher, R. (2012). Transitioning Away from Large-Scale Power Projects: A Simple and Effective Fix for the CDM? SEI Policy Brief. Stockholm Environment Institute – U.S. Center, Seattle, WA. http://www.sei-international.org/publications?pid=2204

Lee, Carrie M., and Michael Lazarus. 2013. “Bioenergy Projects and Sustainable Development: Which Project Types Offer the Greatest Benefits?” Climate and Development 0 (0): 1–13. doi:10.1080/17565529.2013.812951.

Lee, Carrie M., Michael Lazarus, Gordon R. Smith, Kimberly Todd, and Melissa Weitz. 2013. “A Ton Is Not Always a Ton: A Road-Test of Landfill, Manure, and Afforestation/reforestation Offset Protocols in the U.S. Carbon Market.” Environmental Science & Policy 33 (November): 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2013.05.002.

Lee et al., 2020. The contribution of global aviation to anthropogenic climate forcing for 2000 to 2018. Atmospheric Science, Volume 244, January 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117834.

Murray, B. C., Galik, C. S., Mitchell, S. and Cottle, P. (2012). Alternative Approaches to Addressing the Risk of Non-Permanence in Afforestation and Reforestation Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University

Offset Quality Initiative (2008). Ensuring Offset Quality: Integrating High Quality Greenhouse Gas Offsets into American Cap-and-Trade Policy. The Climate Trust, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, California Climate Action Registry, Environmental Resources Trust, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute and The Climate Group. https://ghginstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/OQI_Ensuring_Offset_Quality_Exec_Sum_Jul08.pdf

Offset Quality Initiative, 2009. “Maintaining Carbon Market Integrity: Why Renewable Energy Certificates Are Not Offsets”, June.

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Oxfam, 2020. Removing Carbon Now – How can companies and individuals fund negative emissions technologies in a safe and effective way to help solve the climate crisis?, Oxfam.org, August.

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Ruthner, L., Johnson, M., Chatterjee, B., Lazarus, M., Fujiwara, N., Egenhofer, C., du Monceau, T. and Brohe, A. (2011). Study on the Integrity of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). AEA Technology for the EU Commission

Schneider, L. (2009). Assessing the additionality of CDM projects: practical experiences and lessons learned. Climate Policy, 9(3). 242–54. DOI: 10.3763/cpol.2008.0533

Schneider, L., Broekhoff, D., Mealey, T. and Soparkar, I. (2019). Avoiding Double Counting for CORSIA. Carbon Mechanisms Review, no. 3. 19–25.

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Schneider, L. and La Hoz Theuer, S. (2019). Environmental integrity of international carbon market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement. Climate Policy, 19(3). 386–400. DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2018.1521332

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